Theology and Science

Begun in 2003, Theology and Science draws its academic strength from the background of over thirty years of CTNS development, the expertise of hundreds of scientists and theologians from around the world who have participated in CTNS research programs, as well as a cadre of more than 40 editors on the Editorial Advisory Board. From physics and cosmology to evolutionary biology, genetics, neuroscience and the environmental sciences, Theology and Science engages scientific discourse in dialogue with both Christian and multi-religious perspectives. With these affiliations, the journal provides a critical and comprehensive collection of articles and reviews that promote the creative mutual interaction between the natural sciences and theology. CTNS members receive both the printed and on-line versions of this outstanding journal. Theology and Science is hosted at Taylor and Francis Online.

For editorial aims, instructions for authors, and editorial board information please see below. For the Table of Contents and access to the Current Issue, please see Publications/Theology and Science


Editorial Policy
Theology and Science is the scholarly journal of the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences and is published by Routledge. The primary editorial goal of Theology and Science is to publish critically reviewed articles that promote the creative mutual interaction between the natural sciences and theology. While the journal assumes the integrity of each domain, its primary aim is to explore this interaction in terms of the implications of the natural sciences for constructive research in philosophical and systematic theology, the philosophical and theological elements within and underlying theoretical research in the natural sciences, and the relations and interactions between theological and scientific methodologies. The secondary editorial goal is to monitor and critically assess debates and controversies arising in the broader field of science and religion. Thus, Theology and Science investigates, analyzes, and reports on issues as they arise with the intention of prompting further academic discussion of them.

The central scientific focus of Theology and Science is on developments in physics, cosmology, evolutionary biology, and genetics, with additional topics in the neurosciences, the environmental sciences, and mathematics. With regard to the theological task, Theology and Science engages in both Christian and multi-religious reflection. The Christian theological agenda focuses on the various doctrinal loci of systematic theology. The multi-religious agenda attends primarily to theological issues arising from the engagement between the sciences and religious traditions such as , Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, native spiritualities, and Taoism. This approach reflects the editors' assumption that theology, as intellectual reflection upon one's religious tradition, should begin by expressing the fundamental commitments and worldview of a specific religious understanding, and that dialogue with science can best be pursued when such a religious understanding is given self-critical expression.

Attention is also given to research into the historical relationship between science and religion, along with research into the broader relationship between the philosophy of science and the philosophy of religion. Research in the social sciences and in the humanities is invited to complement these primary foci when it offers needed connections between scientific theories and theology. This may also involve the resources of such disciplines as anthropology, cultural studies, historical theology, and metaphysics.

This editorial policy is formulated with the guiding confidence that a serious dialogue between science and theology will lead to a variety of new and progressive research programs, and that these in turn will yield new insights, deeper understanding, and new knowledge at the frontiers of science and religion.


Theology and Science Instructions for Authors and Book Reviewers

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Thank you for your interest in contributing to Theology & Science!

Please follow these simple procedures to ensure that we receive your submission in a standard format that is easy to edit and process. The editors of Theology and Science reserve the right to make final decisions regarding papers submitted for possible publication.

All submissions should be made online at the Theology and Science Manuscript Central site. New users should first create an account. Once a user is logged onto the site submissions should be made via the Author Center.

Article Format. Authors should prepare and upload two versions of their manuscript. One should be a complete text, while in the second all document information identifying the author should be removed from files to allow them to be sent anonymously to referees. When uploading files authors will then be able to define the non-anonymous version as “File not for review”.

Headings. Theology and Science uses only two layers of headings. First-level headings should appear in bold, justified with the left margin, with two spaces above the heading and one space below. Second-level headings should appear in normal print, justified with the left margin, with one space above and one space below the heading.

Documentation. Where abbreviation is appropriate, use the standard abbreviations for books of the Bible and other ancient documents. If these are not available to you, write out full titles and the editors will abbreviate. Please do not abbreviate titles of journals or books in your text or notes; rather, provide full titles.

Notes should be placed at the end of the article.

Endnotes. Theology and Science follows Turabian or Chicago Manual of Style. It is not necessary to include words such as “Press” or “Publishing Company.” Please italicize book titles rather than underlining. Here are some samples:

Hans Conzelmannn, Jesus, trans. J. Raymond Lord (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1973), 36-50.

Duane A. Priebe, “Theology and Hermeneutics,” Studies in Lutheran Hermeneutics, ed. John Reumann (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1979), 297-301.

Malcolm Jeeves, “Human Natures: An Integrated Picture,” in What About the Soul?: Neuroscience and Christian Anthropology, ed. Joel B. Green (Nashville: Abingdon, 2004), 171-189.

Niels Henrik Gregersen, “Theology in a Neo-Darwinian World,” Studia Theologica 48:2 (1994): 125-149.

Ethan J. Temeles, Irvin L. Pan, Jillian L. Brennan, and Jedediah N. Horwitt, “Evidence for Ecological Causation of Sexual Dimorphism in a Hummingbird,” Science, Vol. 289, No. 5478 (July 2000): 441-443.

For subsequent notes after first entry use—as appropriate—one of the following:

Ibid., 38. (Do not underscore the word Ibid.)

Priebe, “Theology and Hermeneutics,” 299. (shortened title)

Abstract and Key Words. Due to the growing number of people using on-line versions of journals, and due to the growing amount of articles available on-line, we ask that you write a 100 word Abstract for your article. Likewise, we ask that you supply between 5 and 7 key words by which would-be interested readers can find your article by performing a web search. The abstract should appear before your article and key words should follow.

For Example:

Abstract: This document contains the information that Theology and Science contributors will need in order to prepare their articles in such a way as to minimize distress for the Managing Editor.

Key words: Author instructions; Length; Transliterations; Footnotes; Copyright; Formatting

Transliterations must be used for Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, etc. Include accents only where absolutely necessary. Conform Greek and Hebrew transliterations to the style used in the Chicago Manual of Style. For Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, please use the format found in the International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. When any foreign language is used, provide English translation set within parentheses after the foreign word or clause, except for commonly known words. Italicize all foreign words or phrases.

Illustrations: We welcome figures sent electronically, but care and attention to these guidelines are essential as importing graphics packages can often be problematic.

Figures must be saved individually and separate to text. Please do not embed figures in the paper file.

Avoid the use of colour and tints for purely aesthetic reasons.

Figures should be produced as near to the finished size as possible.

All figures must be numbered in the order in which they appear in the paper (e.g. figure 1, figure 2). In multi-part figures, each part should be labelled (e.g. figure 1(a), figure 1(b)).

Figure captions must be saved separately, as part of the file containing the complete text of the paper, and numbered correspondingly.

The filename for the graphic should be descriptive of the graphic, e.g. Figure1, Figure2a.

Files should be saved as one of the following formats: TIFF (tagged image file format), PostScript or EPS (encapsulated PostScript), and should contain all the necessary font information and the source file of the application (e.g. CorelDraw/Mac, CorelDraw/PC).

Please note that it is in the author's interest to provide the highest quality figure format possible. Please do not hesitate to contact the Taylor and Francis Production Department if you have any queries.

Thematic and other major articles are limited to approximately 5,000-8,000 words.

Book reviews are limited to a maximum of 1,000 words. Please include the following in the title of the review: book title, author, publisher, year, and page count.Please submit these under the Book Review Category on the Manuscript Central site.

Peer Review Process: Once submitting to Manuscript Central, if your paper meets our submission guidelines and is appropriate for our journal, the paper will be submitted to double blind peer review.  The peer review process will suggest publication, revisions, or rejection.  If the needed revisions are major, the revised paper will be submitted to another round of peer review upon resubmission.  In the event of the two peer reviewers widely diverging in their evaluation, a third peer reviewer will adjudicate between the original two, and the judgement of the third reviewer will stand. If your paper is declined by 8 potential peer reviewers with no agreements to review, it will be returned to you for submission elsewhere. After acceptance for publication, your paper will be queued usually for the next available issue.  

Free article access: Corresponding authors can receive 50 free reprints, free online access to their article through Informa World and a complimentary copy of the issue containing their article. Complimentary reprints are available through Rightslink® and additional reprints can be ordered through Rightslink® when proofs are received. If you have any queries, please contact our reprints department at

Copyright: It is a condition of publication that authors assign copyright or license the publication rights in their articles, including abstracts, to the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences. This enables us to ensure full copyright protection and to disseminate the article, and of course the Journal, to the widest possible readership in print and electronic formats as appropriate. Authors retain many rights under the Taylor & Francis rights policies. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyright material from other sources.

If you have any questions, please contact:
Alan Weissenbacher, Ph.D.
Managing Editor / Book Review Editor
Theology and Science
2400 Ridge Road
Berkeley, CA 94709


Editorial Staff

Ted Peters (Founding Co-Editor)Professor of Systematic Theology at Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary and the Graduate Theological Union (GTU), Berkeley, CA, USA

Robert John Russell (Founding Co-Editor)Ian G. Barbour Professor of Theology and Science at the GTU, and Founder and Director of CTNS, Berkeley, CA, USA

Alan Weissenbacher (Managing Editor), Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, CA, USA

Donghwi Kim (Book Review Editor), Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, CA, USA


Editorial Advisory Board for Theology and Science

Christian BergEnvironmental Ethics, Clausthal University of Technology, Germany

Joseph Bracken, S. J., Theology (emeritus), Xavier University, USA

John H. BrookeHistory of Science, Oxford University, UK

Warren BrownPsychology, Fuller Theological Seminary, USA

Frank BudenholzerChemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan

Philip ClaytonPhilosophy, Claremont Graduate School, USA

Terrence Deacon, Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley, USA

Celia Deane-Drummond, Theology, University of Notre Dame, USA

Lindon EavesGenetics, University of Virginia Medical School, USA

George EllisCosmology, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Carl Feit, Biology, Yeshiva University, USA

Owen GingerichAstronomy, Harvard University, USA

Niels GregersenSystematic Theology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

John HaughtSystematic Theology, Georgetown University, USA

Philip Hefner, Systematic Theology (emeritus), Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, USA

Noreen HerzfeldComputer Science, St. John's University, USA

Marty Hewlett, Molecular and Cellular Biology (emeritus), University of Arizona, USA

Nancy HowellTheology, Saint Paul School of Theology, USA

Antje JackelénSystematic Theology, Lutheran Archbishop of Uppsala, Sweden

Malcolm JeevesNeuroscience, University of St. Andrews, Scotland

Karen Lebacqz, Bioethics (emeritus), Pacific School of Religion, USA

Shoaib Ahmed Malik, Islam and Science, St. Mary's University, UK

Sallie McFagueTheology, Vancouver School of Theology, Canada

George MurphyPhysics and Theology, Trinity Lutheran Seminary, USA

Nancey Murphy, Philosophical Theology, Fuller Theological Seminary, USA

Richard PayneBuddhology, Graduate Theological Union, USA

Ann PedersonTheology, Augustana College, USA

Greg PetersonPhilosophy and Religion, South Dakota State University, USA

V. V. RamanPhysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

W. Mark RichardsonPresident, Church Divinity School of the Pacific, USA

Holmes Rolston III, Philosophy, Colorado State University, USA

Rosemary Radford RuetherSystematic Theology (emeritus), Pacific School of Religion, USA

Michael RusePhilosophy of Biology, Florida State University, USA

Jeffrey SchlossBiology, Westmont College, USA

Michael SpezioNeuroscience, California Institute of Technology, USA

James C. Ungureanu, Religious Studies and Philosophy, Stony Brook School, USA 

Howard J. Van TillPhysics (emeritus), Calvin College, USA

Fraser WattsPsychology and Theology, Cambridge University, UK

Kirk Wegter-McNellySystematic Theology, Union College, USA

Wesley J. WildmanMathematics and Theology, Boston University, USA